The Asphalt is a Terrain introduced in the 12.0.0 update. [19], When maintenance is performed on asphalt pavements, such as milling to remove a worn or damaged surface, the removed material can be returned to a facility for processing into new pavement mixtures. The word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself (also called "tarmac" in common parlance). [28], The 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) long Euphrates Tunnel beneath the river Euphrates at Babylon in the time of Queen Semiramis (c. 800 BC) was reportedly constructed of burnt bricks covered with bitumen as a waterproofing agent.[2]. Other examples of this confusion include the La Brea Tar Pits and the Canadian oil sands, both of which actually contain natural bitumen rather than tar. It was also used in decorations. [59], Bitumen was thought in 19th century Britain to contain chemicals with medicinal properties. The asphalt in the removed material can be reactivated and put back to use in new pavement mixes. [73], Bitumen was used in early photographic technology. [8], Asphalt properties change with temperature, which means that there is a specific range where viscosity permits adequate compaction by providing lubrication between particles during the compaction process. These veins formed by the polymerization and solidification of hydrocarbons that were mobilized from the deeper oil shales of the Green River Formation during burial and diagenesis. In 1915, Sidney Ells of the Federal Mines Branch experimented with separation techniques and used the product to pave 600 feet of road in Edmonton, Alberta. [citation needed], In the ancient Middle East, the Sumerians used natural bitumen deposits for mortar between bricks and stones, to cement parts of carvings, such as eyes, into place, for ship caulking, and for waterproofing. This makes the disposal of medium-level bituminised waste very challenging. Geokinetic Flight using asphalt. The insoluble matter, consisting mainly of silica ore, ranges from 8% to 17%. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. The swelling pressure due to osmotic effect under constant volume can be as high as 200 bar. Asphalt is specifically designed to carry the loads without any shear. [83] A sixth upgrader, under construction in 2015 near Redwater, Alberta, will upgrade half of its crude bitumen directly to diesel fuel, with the remainder of the output being sold as feedstock to nearby oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Selenizza is produced primarily in granular form, after melting the bitumen pieces selected in the mine. [50] "The formation in 1838 of Claridge's Patent Asphalte Company (with a distinguished list of aristocratic patrons, and Marc and Isambard Brunel as, respectively, a trustee and consulting engineer), gave an enormous impetus to the development of a British asphalt industry". Asphalt Burning looking full of Action and Adventure. A further 10% of global asphalt production is used in roofing applications, where its waterproofing qualities are invaluable. Experientia, 47(6), 533–539. In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". The radiation swelling of bitumens and bitumenised wastes. [30] The Sidon bitumen is thought to refer to material found at Hasbeya in Lebanon. Small round shell beads were often set in asphaltum to provide decorations. Games in the series typically focus on fast-paced arcade racing set in various locales throughout the world, tasking players to complete races while evading the local law enforcement in police pursuits. Create asphalt. Brick surfacing was a good compromise, but even better was asphalt paving, which was easy to install and to cut through to get at sewers. Material with a boiling point greater than around 500 °C is considered asphalt. [82], In Alberta, five bitumen upgraders produce synthetic crude oil and a variety of other products: The Suncor Energy upgrader near Fort McMurray, Alberta produces synthetic crude oil plus diesel fuel; the Syncrude Canada, Canadian Natural Resources, and Nexen upgraders near Fort McMurray produce synthetic crude oil; and the Shell Scotford Upgrader near Edmonton produces synthetic crude oil plus an intermediate feedstock for the nearby Shell Oil Refinery. Other typical applications include the production of mastic asphalts for sidewalks, bridges, car-parks and urban roads as well as drilling fluid additives for the oil and gas industry. [51], In 1914, Claridge's Company entered into a joint venture to produce tar-bound macadam,[55] with materials manufactured through a subsidiary company called Clarmac Roads Ltd.[56] Two products resulted, namely Clarmac, and Clarphalte, with the former being manufactured by Clarmac Roads and the latter by Claridge's Patent Asphalte Co., although Clarmac was more widely used. [53], In 1838, there was a flurry of entrepreneurial activity involving asphalt, which had uses beyond paving. [52] The Bonnington Chemical Works manufactured asphalt using coal tar and by 1839 had installed it in Bonnington. … [36] Then on 25 November 1837, Richard Tappin Claridge patented the use of Seyssel asphalt (patent #7849), for use in asphalte pavement,[40][41] having seen it employed in France and Belgium when visiting with Frederick Walter Simms, who worked with him on the introduction of asphalt to Britain. [16] The total amount of crude bitumen in Alberta that could be extracted is estimated to be about 310 billion barrels (50×10^9 m3),[8] which at a rate of 4,400,000 barrels per day (700,000 m3/d) would last about 200 years. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", and jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing" (referring to coniferous or resinous trees). Asphalt is used to make Japan black, a lacquer known especially for its use on iron and steel, and it is also used in paint and marker inks by some exterior paint supply companies to increase the weather resistance and permanence of the paint or ink, and to make the color darker. By 2014, Canadian crude bitumen production averaged about 2.3 million barrels (370,000 m3) per day and was projected to rise to 4.4 million barrels (700,000 m3) per day by 2020. A fossil fuel essential for manufacturing gasoline, plastics, and asphalt. The Egyptians' primary source of bitumen was the Dead Sea, which the Romans knew as Palus Asphaltites (Asphalt Lake). The water moves in the direction of the concentrated salts, the asphalt acting as a semi-permeable membrane. In 1851, extensions for the 1837 patent and for both 1838 patents were sought by the trustees of a company previously formed by Claridge. Bitumen occurs as a solid or highly viscous liquid. Petroleum asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most petroleum crude oils and in some natural deposits. It is mixed with traditional asphalt to improve both the viscoelastic properties and the resistance to ageing. Chipseal involves spraying the road surface with asphalt emulsion followed by a layer of crushed rock, gravel or crushed slag. Statuettes of household deities were also cast with this type of material in Japan, and probably also in China. [17] "It is almost impossible to separate and identify all the different molecules of asphalt, because the number of molecules with different chemical structure is extremely large".[18]. Natural seeps occur in the La Brea Tar Pits and in the Dead Sea. Repair objects of asphalt. Perhaps the most famous example of the destructiveness of bitumen is Théodore Géricault's Raft of the Medusa (1818–1819), where his use of bitumen caused the brilliant colors to degenerate into dark greens and blacks and the paint and canvas to buckle.[76]. Roofing shingles and roll roofing account for most of the remaining asphalt consumption. However, "asphalt" is also commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete" (therefore equivalent to the British "asphalt" or "tarmac"). [8], The world's largest deposit of natural bitumen, known as the Athabasca oil sands, is located in the McMurray Formation of Northern Alberta. Approximately 85% of all the asphalt produced is used as the binder in asphalt concrete for roads. Lefillatre, G., Rodier, J., Hullo, R., Cudel, Y., & Rodi, L. (1969). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit of 5 mg/m3 over a 15-minute period. In 1875, the exploitation rights were granted to the Ottoman government and in 1912, they were transferred to the Italian company Simsa. Asphalt is applied in the construction and maintenance of many structures, systems, and components, such as the following: The largest use of asphalt is for making asphalt concrete for road surfaces; this accounts for approximately 85% of the asphalt consumed in the United States. CSU Sacramento, The World Famous Asphalt Museum! To help avoid confusion, the phrases "liquid asphalt", "asphalt binder", or "asphalt cement" are used in the U.S. Colloquially, various forms of asphalt are sometimes referred to as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits, although tar is a different material. The bitumen was thinly coated onto a pewter plate which was then exposed in a camera. Asphalt is a liquid commonly found in tarry biomes. There are street tiles on the top of the block. Slurry seal is a mixture of asphalt emulsion and fine crushed aggregate that is spread on the surface of a road. CEA Marcoule. UKAEA Harwell Lab. Arnold, Terence S. (senior research chemist, Pavement Materials Team, Office of Infrastructure Research and Development, McIntosh, Jane. In the 1830s there was a surge of interest, and asphalt became widely used "for pavements, flat roofs, and the lining of cisterns, and in England, some use of it had been made of it for similar purposes". [34], An 1838 edition of Mechanics Magazine cites an early use of asphalt in France. [2][36][54] On the London stockmarket, there were various claims as to the exclusivity of asphalt quality from France, Germany and England. This also causes the matrix to swell. At first naturally occurring "bituminous rock" was used, such as at Ritchie Mines in Macfarlan in Ritchie County, West Virginia from 1852 to 1873. These remains were deposited in the mud on the bottom of the ocean or lake where the organisms lived. CEA Marcoule. [23], Much smaller heavy oil or bitumen deposits also occur in the Uinta Basin in Utah, US. However, it wasn't until 1787 that fur trader and explorer Alexander MacKenzie saw the Athabasca oil sands and said, "At about 24 miles from the fork (of the Athabasca and Clearwater Rivers) are some bituminous fountains into which a pole of 20 feet long may be inserted without the least resistance. AERE-R – 12292). According to the requirements of the end use, asphalt is produced to specification. 1 hr 40 min. The viscosity can be lowered by emulsfying the asphalt by the addition of fatty amines. Although historically it was used without refining to pave roads, nearly all of the output is now used as raw material for oil refineries in Canada and the United States. A number of technologies allow asphalt to be applied at mild temperatures. In French, the term asphalte is used for naturally occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, and for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The first use of bitumen in the New World was by indigenous peoples. Since 1945, the mine was exploited by the Albanian government and from 2001 to date, the management passed to a French company, which organized the mining process for the manufacture of the natural bitumen on an industrial scale.[94]. In a de-asphalting unit, the crude asphalt is treated with ei… Today the mine is predominantly exploited in an open pit quarry but several of the many underground mines (deep and extending over several km) still remain viable. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with tar or coal tars. The third and final installment in the Burnout trilogy. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. If raised to a high enough temperature, asphalt can burn, and the fire can spread to adjacent squares; however, burning does not destroy the asphalt. [49] Trials were made of the pavement in 1838 on the footway in Whitehall, the stable at Knightsbridge Barracks,[48][50] "and subsequently on the space at the bottom of the steps leading from Waterloo Place to St. James Park". Although widely used for a time, it ultimately proved unstable for use in oil painting, especially when mixed with the most common diluents, such as linseed oil, varnish and turpentine. According to industry surveys conducted annually by the Federal Highway Administration and the National Asphalt Pavement Association, more than 99% of the asphalt removed each year from road surfaces during widening and resurfacing projects is reused as part of new pavements, roadbeds, shoulders and embankments or stockpiled for future use.[80]. [96], Asphalt is a commonly recycled material in the construction industry. Thus, it is desirable to avoid stepping in it if you are in a dangerous area and annoying otherwise. In 1826 or 1827, it was used by French scientist Joseph Nicéphore Niépce to make the oldest surviving photograph from nature. This sour, heavy crude oil blend is designed to have uniform refining characteristics to compete with internationally marketed heavy oils such as Mexican Mayan or Arabian Dubai Crude.[83]. After centuries of silence, the first mentions of Albanian bitumen appeared only in 1868, when the Frenchman Coquand published the first geological description of the deposits of Albanian bitumen. Asphalt Mimicry; Burying; Geokinetic Combat using asphalt. Asphalt paving provides a stable, safe and durable roadsurface. [23] Eventually Fitzsimmons ran out of money and the plant was taken over by the Alberta government. And numerous patents were granted in France, with similar numbers of patent applications being denied in England due to their similarity to each other. Movie: Asphalt BurningAlso Known as: Børning 3, Norweski speed 3Release Date: 2 January, 2021 (Netflix)Language: Swedish, Norwegian, German, EnglishGenre: Action, ComedyCountry: NorwayMain Cast: Anders Baasmo, Kathrine Thorborg Johansen, Ida HusøyDirector: Hallvard BræinWriters: Christopher Grøndahl, Kjetil Indregard. Naturally occurring deposits of bitumen are formed from the remains of ancient, microscopic algae (diatoms) and other once-living things. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, asphaltum, which is the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος (ásphaltos, ásphalton), a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch",[11] which perhaps derives from ἀ-, "not, without", i.e. They were covered by mud, buried deeply over time, and gently cooked into oil by geothermal heat at a temperature of 50 to 150 °C (120 to 300 °F). Asphalt Burning. Starring: Anders Baasmo Christiansen, Kathrine Thorborg Johansen, Ida Husøy. Burning Pursuit You will need a 5 GT3 to play the Hazard 3 races at BP VI. For information on the different types of RAS and associated health and safety concerns, see Asphalt Shingles. CEA-R – 3742). Nonpetroleum-based asphalt binders can be made light-colored. Other materials, such as recycled polymers (e.g., rubber tyres), may be added to the asphalt to modify its properties according to the application for which the asphalt is ultimately intended. :):) +1 July 01 2019 22:05:30 Bothen Thanks Tom, next comes Melting asphalt, then dripping asphalt, then puddle of asphalt!!! :):) +1 Luglio 01 2019 22:05:30 Bothen Thanks Tom, next comes Melting asphalt, then dripping asphalt, then puddle of asphalt!!! The addition of coal tar to macadam roads led to the word "tarmac", which is now used in common parlance to refer to road-making materials. For example, it was used on rattles to adhere gourds or turtle shells to rattle handles. :o;):D +1 Funny? Johnson, D.I., Hitchon, J.W., & Phillips, D.C. (1986). It is commonly modelled as a colloid, with asphaltenes as the dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase. This step makes the product harder and more viscous.[4]. The illegal sports car race "Street legal" goes 2000 kilometers through Norway from Oslo to North Cape, and Roy has been challenged to participate. [102], In 2020 scientists reported that asphalt currently is a significant and largely overlooked source of air pollution in urban areas, especially during hot and sunny periods.[104][105]. It was the object of the first known battle for a hydrocarbon deposit – between the Seleucids and the Nabateans in 312 BC. Different type of asphalt have been used: blown bitumen (partly oxidized with air oxygen at high temperature after distillation, and harder) and direct distillation bitumen (softer). [57][note 1] However, the First World War ruined the Clarmac Company, which entered into liquidation in 1915. Asphalt Burning Asphalt Burning (2020) aka Børning 3 is a Norwegian action-adventure-comedy film new on Netflix. The nearest town, Fort McMurray, Alberta, was a small fur trading post, other markets were far away, and transportation costs were too high to ship the raw bituminous sand for paving. Move/lift asphalt. 5 pdf. He has voiced such roles as Funtime Freddy and Fredbear in Five Nights at Freddy's, Overhaul / Kai Chisaki in My Hero Academia, and Diavolo in JoJo's Bizarre Adventure: Golden Wind. [85][86] Bituminised radioactive waste containing highly radiotoxic alpha-emitting transuranic elements from nuclear reprocessing plants have been produced at industrial scale in France, Belgium and Japan, but this type of waste conditioning has been abandoned because operational safety issues (risks of fire, as occurred in a bituminisation plant at Tokai Works in Japan)[87][88] and long-term stability problems related to their geological disposal in deep rock formations. [70] The streets became faster and more dangerous so electric traffic lights were installed. This was used to cover objects that needed waterproofing,[2] such as scabbards and other items. Many modern oil refineries are extremely sophisticated and can process non-upgraded bitumen directly into products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and refined asphalt without any preprocessing. Sometimes diesel oil or kerosene are mixed in before shipping to retain liquidity; upon delivery, these lighter materials are separated out of the mixture. It's extraction, transport, and burning all have environmental impacts. CEA-R – 1992). [4], In material sciences and engineering, the terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance, although there is regional variation as to which term is most common. frenzie Burning groove on that asphalt Ron!! Specifically, Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. Manipulate the properties of asphalt. The bitumen is found in the form of veins, filling cracks in a more or less horizontal direction. An asphalt mixing plant for hot aggregate. An example of this is within the Uinta Basin of Utah, in the US, where there is a swarm of laterally and vertically extensive veins composed of a solid hydrocarbon termed Gilsonite. Ait-Langomazino, N., Sellier, R., Jouquet, G., & Trescinski, M. (1991). Of the Alberta deposits, only parts of the Athabasca oil sands are shallow enough to be suitable for surface mining. Tar/asphalt is highly viscous and sticks to skin, making it difficult to remove and leading to more severe burns; Tar itself is sterile, but dead tissue underneath is not; Clinical Features. [35], But the substance was generally neglected in France until the revolution of 1830. After extraction from the sand, the bitumen is fed into a bitumen upgrader which converts it into a light crude oil equivalent. In examining the potential health hazards associated with asphalt, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that it is the application parameters, predominantly temperature, that affect occupational exposure and the potential bioavailable carcinogenic hazard/risk of the asphalt emissions. Viscous black substance on skin in setting of history of working with coal tar or asphalt May be hardened or still relatively fluid on presentation to ED [69] In 1890, a third of Chicago's 2000 miles of streets were paved, chiefly with wooden blocks, which gave better traction than mud. In 1719, a Cree named Wa-Pa-Su brought a sample for trade to Henry Kelsey of the Hudson's Bay Company, who was the first recorded European to see it. [23], The use of natural bitumen for waterproofing, and as an adhesive dates at least to the fifth millennium BC, with a crop storage basket discovered in Mehrgarh, of the Indus Valley Civilization, lined with it. Matter Surfing by riding a boulder or a mass of asphalt. This is achieved either by refining or blending. The Athabasca oil sands are the largest bitumen deposit in Canada and the only one accessible to surface mining, although recent technological breakthroughs have resulted in deeper deposits becoming producible by in situ methods. A life-cycle assessment study of the natural selenizza compared with petroleum asphalt has shown that the environmental impact of the selenizza is about half the impact of the road asphalt produced in oil refineries in terms of carbon dioxide emission. [77], Asphalt concrete pavement mixes are typically composed of 5% asphalt cement and 95% aggregates (stone, sand, and gravel). "Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for naturally occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. [26] The vast Alberta bitumen resources are considered to have started out as living material from marine plants and animals, mainly algae, that died millions of years ago when an ancient ocean covered Alberta. "Revolutionary Romanticism: 'The Raft of the Medusa' brought energy to French art", "How Should We Express RAP and RAS Contents? [21] Isotopic studies show the oil deposits to be about 110 million years old. It is used to tremendously increase the chance of Mythical pets hatching. Albanian bitumen extraction has a long history and was practiced in an organized way by the Romans. In approximately 40 AD, Dioscorides described the Dead Sea material as Judaicum bitumen, and noted other places in the region where it could be found. For naturally occurring bituminous sands used for petroleum production, see, Form of petroleum, primarily used in road construction, Muhammad Abdul Quddus (1992), p. 99, in ch. Asphalt may be confused with coal tar, which is a visually similar black, thermoplastic material produced by the destructive distillation of coal. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – Asphalt Fumes,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2014, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Asphaltenes, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and, This page was last edited on 18 March 2021, at 20:54. Kellen Goff (born February 3, 1995 in Torrance, California, U.S.) is an American voice actor, voicing a wide variety of characters from video games, animation and commercials. Selenizza is a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon bitumen found in native deposits in Selenice, in Albania, the only European asphalt mine still in use. For economic and other reasons, asphalt is sometimes sold combined with other materials, often without being labeled as anything other than simply "asphalt". [84], Canadian bitumen does not differ substantially from oils such as Venezuelan extra-heavy and Mexican heavy oil in chemical composition, and the real difficulty is moving the extremely viscous bitumen through oil pipelines to the refinery. [44], Claridge obtained a patent in Scotland on 27 March 1838, and obtained a patent in Ireland on 23 April 1838. An average example in the United States is about 112 pounds per square yard, per inch of pavement thickness. Cast: Anders Baasmo Christiansen as Roy Kathrine Thorborg Johansen as Sylvia Ida Husoy as Nina About 40,000,000 tons were produced in 1984. The resulting material is typically further treated to extract small but valuable amounts of lubricants and to adjust the properties of the material to suit applications. With respect to wood preservatives, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers the term creosote to mean a pesticide for use as a wood preservative meeting the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Standards P1/P13 and P2. [59][60] The failure of Clarmac Roads Ltd had a flow-on effect to Claridge's Company, which was itself compulsorily wound up,[61] ceasing operations in 1917,[62][63] having invested a substantial amount of funds into the new venture, both at the outset[61] and in a subsequent attempt to save the Clarmac Company. The film is directed by Hallvard Bræin. Anders Baasmo, Kathrine Thorborg Johansen and Ida Husøy are main cast of Asphalt Burning. Asphalt Burning looking full of Action and Adventure. Asphalt Burning movie is release on 2 January, 2021 on Netflix. [13] From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, and thence into French (asphalte) and English ("asphaltum" and "asphalt"). Asphalt Burning written by Christopher Grøndahl and Kjetil Indregard. In 1876, asphalt-based paving was used to pave Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington DC, in time for the celebration of the national centennial. Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres (55,000 sq mi), an area larger than England. Asphalt Burning looking full of Action and Adventure. "Bitumen" redirects here. The high concentration of salt in the pore solution inside the bituminised matrix is then responsible for osmotic effects inside the bituminised matrix. Mastic asphalt is heated to a temperature of 210 °C (410 °F) and is spread in layers to form an impervious barrier about 20 millimeters (0.8 inches) thick. The Vocaloid Lyrics Wiki attempts to follow the Fandom TOU, and thus will not host lyrics which are extremely sexual, violent, or discriminatory in nature.If the lyrics found on this page is found to violate the Fandom TOU, they might be removed without notice. All three groups used the substance as an adhesive. It premiered on Norway on August 12, … “Asphalt Burning”: Netflix Release Date, Cast, Trailer and All you need to know; Starring Anders Baasmo, Kathrine Thorborg Johansen & Ida Husøy. The cationic amines enhance the binding of the asphalt to the surface of the crushed rock. Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses[6][7] while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C (977 °F) is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen". They were not fast, and pedestrians could dodge and scramble their way across the crowded streets. [99] For this reason, recycled asphalt is typically combined with virgin asphalt, softening agents, and/or rejuvenating additives to restore its physical and chemical properties.[100]. [21], Bitumen may occur in hydrothermal veins. Natural deposits of bitumen include lakes such as the Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago and Lake Bermudez in Venezuela. Study on the cause of the fire and explosion incident at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works. Bitumen mixed with clay was usually called "asphaltum", but the term is less commonly used today.[14]. frenzie Burning groove on that asphalt Ron!! p. 57. 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In a de-asphalting unit, the crude asphalt is treated with either propane or butane in a supercritical phase to extract the lighter molecules, which are then separated. Mastic asphalt is a type of asphalt that differs from dense graded asphalt (asphalt concrete) in that it has a higher asphalt (binder) content, usually around 7–10% of the whole aggregate mix, as opposed to rolled asphalt concrete, which has only around 5% asphalt.